Electronic Hearth: Creating an American Television Culture
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What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart. Cart items. Toggle navigation. Stock photo. Search Results Results 1 of Oxford University Press. Spine creases, wear to binding and pages from reading. May contain limited notes, underlining or highlighting that does affect the text. Accessories such as CD, codes, toys, may not be included.
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This book has soft covers. Ex-library, With usual stamps and markings, In fair condition, suitable as a study copy. Oxford University Press, Incorporated, Disclaimer:A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. The spine may show signs of wear. Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. Dust jacket quality is not guaranteed. Disclaimer:A readable copy. Recent research on transnational television history has challenged the historical narrative that European television, previously structured as a national medium, only acquired significant transnational features in the s with the development of satellite television and commercial services.
According to Cecelia Tichi, the television environment is shaped by interpretative texts on the meanings of television in various fields of discourse. Thus, I am not primarily interested here in the political manoeuvres behind transnational television in the Cold War context. Rather, the article proposes that in order to understand the significance of socialist television in Finland, it is necessary to take into consideration not only behind-the-scenes politics, but also the cultural meanings and uses of socialist television.
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This article suggests that the Finnish television environment formed in contact with both Western and Eastern influences and provides an analysis of how these influences appeared in one context, Katso. The national public service broadcasting company Yleisradio YLE held the only license for radio broadcasting in Finland until Already by the end of , television broadcasts were within reach of half of the geographical area of the country and 90 percent of the population. By the end of , only northernmost Lapland remained outside the television coverage area.
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In this context, Katso participated in defining the cultural meanings of television and in producing the television audience. Katso was the first television magazine in Finland. The magazine carried television and radio listings, programme information and critiques, and articles about television, radio and other topics.
The first volume of Katso emphasised the transnational qualities of television. As historian Patricia Clavin notes, this kind of understanding of transnationalism encompasses such a large variety of encounters that it may be difficult to keep a clear focus on the phenomenon. Nearly every issue of Katso in featured some discussion of television in a transnational context.
Transnational themes fall into four categories: 1 learning about television in other countries; 2 the Eurovision and Nordvision networks; 3 watching television across national borders; and 4 visions of world television. Whereas in the first three cases transnationalism refers to different ways of encountering television from other countries, visions of world television question national boundaries altogether. Apart from the Eurovision and Nordvision networks, all of these categories include discussion of both Eastern and Western television cultures.
The early issues of Katso illustrate how the Finnish television culture developed in close contact with television in other countries. Katso also published articles that introduced television in countries such as Britain and Norway and an article series on the international history of television, focusing on the USA, Western Europe and the Soviet Union. British television was an important role model for Finnish television. Tallinn television was also featured in the second issue of Katso.
The difference is that the article was not based on an interview with a Finnish television professional, but rather the writer whose name was not given as was common practise in Katso at the time visited Tallinn television studios with an unidentified group of Finnish visitors.
Later Katso reported about a group of STV employees visiting Leningrad, where they had among other things observed a live broadcast at the Kirov stadium. Fig 1.
The caption of the bottom image comments that the studios in Tallinn, like in Helsinki, were not originally designed for television production and were crowded during the tour of the large group of Finnish visitors. Katso introduced readers to both Western European and Soviet television, although it gave more attention to Western European television.
Finnish television professionals were invited to visit television stations in both the East and the West, and Katso represented both as having something to offer Finnish television professionals and viewers. The interviews bring Western European television closer to the reader than Soviet television.
Nordvision was not a separate organisation in the early s, but a name given to the practical programme exchange among the Nordic public service broadcasters. In , Nordvision programmes on Finnish television included, for example, a light entertainment series filmed at the Tivoli in Copenhagen, a Norwegian popular music series and a programme about the Swedish troubadour Evert Taube. Katso did not mention Intervision in While the Intervision programme exchange had begun in February , YLE only joined the network in In the beginning of the s, Finnish television channels could be viewed only in southern Finland.
This allowed foreign television channels to become a source of programming in some areas. The television schedules published by Katso indicate a television environment that was not defined by national boundaries. Indeed, family members can be considered to actively construct their own everyday lives. Television and Time Management TV did restrict visiting times and life rhythm pretty much. Television is important in that it sets up a timetable and pace for everyday life, strongly influencing social intercourse as well.
In this respect, the media create a sense of solidarity: people are doing things in pace with other people, even if they do not know each other. For this reason television viewing creates a certain sense of security, as when considered social activity in the family. Radio and television have not only affected daily and weekly rhythm, but also created a new kind of concept for a calendar year, the television year, which organises and coordinates social life, creating expectations for the future Scannel , 16, — All things considered, in the first data set, television affected the rhythm of life in over half of those respondents who had addressed the issue.
The most apparent observation from the early years of television was that the bedtimes of the Finns were postponed. In addition, viewing took much time from and influenced the timing other activities e. In the late s, however, the largest part of the Finns still lived in rural communities. In those days, the YLE news was broadcast on both channels at the same time.
Then I heard once that when they were on at 10 p. But nowadays we often watch them. Female, born The single most important programme that set the pace for everyday life in the first twenty years of Finnish television was, however, the American serial Payton Place, which began in the late s. It was the first prime time soap opera in Finland and it was immensely popular.
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It even threatened one of the core summer traditions in Finland, that spending time at the summer cottage: Peyton Place, which was very popular, began in spring , and I was hooked, too. But then this friend of mine arranged it for me to watch it with someone who lived in the same building as my friend. At that time people came back to town from their summer cottages for Wednesday evenings. Female, born The first actual daytime soap opera broadcast in Finland, The Bold and the Beautiful had a similar impact in the s, though affecting a different time of the day: Peyton Place was on late in the evening, so by then people had returned home, and meetings were over, too.
David Gauntlett and Annette Hill , 23—35, — conducted a research which examined British television viewing in the early s.
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Using television diaries as their material, they observed that, besides the news, the programme genre which determined everyday timetables the most was the soap opera. In the data se of this study, students recalled that television has been important for organising timetables since childhood. Even as a child, television determined time and time use. It was really a totally different thing to sit under the blanket eating candy and watching cartoons, than to be dragged to day care or school. Female, born The above-mentioned rituals have survived to the s, even if it is easier than before to reschedule the viewing with DVRs and especially recording set-top-boxes in Finland nowadays.
What is more, the programme supply in the era of plenty forces to make choices, to prioritise. Talking about TV An integral part of the disciplinary history of the communication studies, the use and gratification studies has paid attention to how common it is to talk about television in various situations ranging from suburbian breakfast tables and coffee breaks at work to the school yard.
For instance, the research by McQuail, Blumler and Brown , , which is regarded as a key text of the tradition, describes how a member of television audience gets gratification from talking about a television quiz show. In my research material, talking about programmes is strongly present: People talked about TV programmes at work and with friends. When Saturday night TV talk shows and debates came on, people talked about them and expressed their own opinions. Plays were talked about, too. Politics was approached according to party political views.
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People stuck with like-minded folks, and scolded their opponents. Reality shows could be considered a kind of phenomenon among people of my age, however. At least in my circle of friends we watch and analyse shows like Big Brother and Idols together regularly. Female, born Talking about television programmes is crucial in order for the programme to gain popularity and to become a part of cultural capital in the general discourse Hobson , In the late s, Reporadio was a nickname given to the Finnish national broadcasting company after Director-General of Yleisradio Eino S.
Repo — Another essential feature of TV talk, the oral culture of television, is gossiping Fiske , 77—80; Fiske , 66; Gray The soap opera, in particular, involves chatting both textually and contextually about the programmes outside the home Hobson As television sets became more common, the social life of families began to revolve around television more and more.
People long for the feeling of communality. Only 17 respondents in the first data set said they did not discuss TV programmes. There is indeed an aspect of social pressure involved: being unaware of a certain programme might entail being left outside the circle of friends, colleagues or neighbours. Talking about television programmes also resulted in following particular programmes because of the influence of friends.
Television programmes were indeed a very important topic in the lives of youngsters. There were certain programmes one had to watch in order to follow and to participate in discussions. A group identity was created through these programmes. Nevertheless, for many, television viewing decreased after teenage years when they began studying. These days anything except this fact is claimed about following both magazines and TV programmes.