On Philosophy: Notes from a Crisis
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Husserl wanted the fruits of an idealism, a humanity noble in its clarity and communion of ideas, but he also wanted the world. Without a dependency, man has lost the unique union of the world and the subsequent knowledge that only arises from such a union. Again, without dependency all man has is a world of positivistic facticity, an illegitimately closed society entering barbarity. For Aquinas, I do not as a knower constitute the world, I constitute my knowledge of the world. What it does give, though, is a kind of dependency. For Husserl, I constitute the world but I am dependent on that which I constitute for my knowledge.
This is a distinction with a radical difference, and cannot lay claim to the same dependency that man and real otherness share. This is the transformation from Phenomenology to Transcendental idealism.
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Husserl has expanded the cogito to include the world but at the price of its reduction to a product of consciousness and the loss of its irreducible metaphysical otherness. The intellectual-philosophical similarities in interests and, to some degree, in method and conclusion, have yet to be explored in adequate depth.
Let us clarify that at first glance, for Husserl, these two societies are not opposed to each other; rather the birth of the open society, of the scientific attitude and the application of its insights, is seemingly traceable to the natural phenomenon of the closed society, the society of tradition. The open society of reason is a breakthrough not a breakaway, a reorientation not a revolution.
If the autonomous spirit the transcendental ego is not acknowledging the same ontological dependency one encounters in a real world constituted by the real existential confrontation with real being in the world, then is the ideal of philosophy as universal science a distinction without a difference from the grand idealisms of Hegel and his followers? What was happening in Europe in if not a struggle between left-wing Hegelianism the Bolsheviks and right-wing Hegelianism the Nazis?
More precisely: how can the autonomy of the Ideas and theoria of the Ego maintain a dependency beyond theoria? Has not its very autonomy frozen any possibility in the very belief in that dependency? For is not belief of that sort rooted in the integrity of the closed society? Was the Renaissance ideal really a continuation of the Greek ideal as Husserl thinks it was, or was it a break from a Greek ideal which not only included an authentic closed society but found therein the matter for its thinking precisely as philosophical and as scientific?
Bergson never pitted the open against the closed society.
On Philosophy: Notes from a Crisis - John McCumber - Google книги
Husserl does not have in mind Aristotelian universal science when he makes the seemingly Aristotelian assertion that Philosophy is Universal Science. His idealism, by being outside the world as constitutive of it, demands a different kind of science, that of clear and distinct ideas, and thus it cannot be science in the classical sense, as a participant within the world communicating through the world to the highest Idea.
Husserl, by equating this modernist form of universal science with philosophy, reveals that he had in mind a very different entelechy than that of the classical Greek thinkers, one redirected by Cartesianism. But the Renaissance ideal is a radical break from the Greek tradition, when it confused the non-participatory classical philosophical science with the remote and isolationist modernist science.
It is true that the Greek philosopher in a way became a non-participating spectator, and that in exchange for his non-participation, he received a view of the Whole and hence universal knowledge was attainable. The non-participating spectator of classic philosophy is not and cannot be man outside the world; he is not the man of clear and distinct ideas; he is not a man sacrificing his world to the mathematical systematization of the cogito apparatus.
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The non-participating spectator of Plato and Aristotle is the man of metaphysics and judgment; he is the man of intentionality. The non-participating spectator has climbed the ascent to the top of the cave and is preparing his descent.
crisis and critique
His metaphysical ascent, his descent back into the cave, and his stasis as non-participating spectator all occur within the world, by the world, and through the world. The difference between the philosophical non-participating spectator of Aristotelian universal science in the Greek understanding and the non-participating spectator for Husserl and the Renaissance ideal is one thing only, yet that one thing changes everything, the presence of the world or its absence! When Husserl, following Descartes, re-introduces the world, is it really the same world we began with?
Does an idealism which constitutes the world really have the same world, the world of intentionality and irreducible otherness? Is not the aftermath and wake of this idealism precisely the crisis of European Man? And if in this wake we see, with Husserl, the barbarity of evil, are we not entitled to ask about the relation of idealism itself to the crisis of evil that he saw engulfing Europe in and that we see in other forms today?
The system, the constituted world of idealism, has the Kantian intention of a noble society of intellectual thought for the sake of infinite intellectual ends. Because the intellect is good, the end will, of course, be Good, as idealism presupposes or posits. Submissions are invited on the philosophy and lived reality of "crisis" from Warwick staff and postgraduate students on a wide range of disciplines, including philosophy, political theory, intellectual history, the history of science, art and music, literature and cultural studies.
As Philosophy in The Time of Crisis does not intend to be either a classic journal nor a traditional academic publication, the editors strongly support the circulation of extremely brief, punctual notes, exemporaneous reflections, nocturnal wonderings, daily musings and ponderous considerations. In short, they would like to create a space for those minimal, minor writings that remain at the margins of philosophical forums and beyond the frontiers of academic publishing.
Short pieces between and words are preferable, but the editors are open to experimenting with other formats. We live in critical times. From the spread of terrorist and counter-terrorist networks to the prospect of ecological collapse, from the growth of social inequalities to the delegitimisation of traditional political institutions, from recurring spectres of financial collapse to the reality of widespread economic destablisation, discourses on 'crisis' have become ubiquitious. And yet, today, the concept of 'crisis' has assumed an unprecedented significance and, in the words of the French philosopher, Myriam Revault D'Allones, has rapidly emerged as the 'absolute metaphor of the contemporary age'.
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And yet, is crisis really the emblematic concept of our late modernity? What have the been the various manifestations as well as conceptual deployments of crisis over time, and what do they reveal about their age? What remedies and measures are evoked by an appeal to crisis? As well as the beginning of the work of critique, is crisis not also a key instrument of populism, and a very useful tool in the politics of fear? Review Articles PDF. What Does Theory Become? Paul Livingston PDF. Agon Hamza PDF. Frank Ruda PDF.
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