Psychology for Health Care: Key Terms and Concepts

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Member companies offer medical-expense insurance, long-term care insurance, disability-income insurance, dental insurance, supplemental insurance, stop-loss insurance and reinsurance to consumers, employers and public purchasers. AHIP's goal is to provide a unified voice for the health care financing industry; to expand access to high-quality, cost-effective health care to all Americans; and to ensure Americans' financial security through robust insurance markets, product flexibility and innovation, and an abundance of consumer choice.

Founded in , its mission is to preserve and promote the science and art of family medicine and to ensure high-quality, cost-effective health care for patients of all ages. Working together with health care providers, QIOs identify opportunities and provide assistance for improvement. American Hospital Association AHA — The American Hospital Association AHA is a national organization, founded in , that represents and serves all types of hospitals, health care networks, and their patients and communities. The AHA provides education for health care leaders and is a source of information on health care issues and trends.

Through representation and advocacy activities, the AHA ensures that members' perspectives and needs are heard and addressed in national health policy development, legislative and regulatory debates, and judicial matters. Our advocacy efforts include the legislative and executive branches and include the legislative and regulatory arenas. Nearly 5, hospitals, health care systems, networks, other providers of care and 37, individual members come together to form the AHA. The AMA seeks to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health.

The ANA advances the nursing profession by fostering high standards of nursing practice, promoting the rights of nurses in the workplace, projecting a positive and realistic view of nursing, and by lobbying the Congress and regulatory agencies on health care issues affecting nurses and the public.

Well-Being Concepts

Benchmark benchmarking — Benchmarking is a way for hospitals and doctors to analyze quality data, both internally and against data from other hospitals and doctors, to identify best practices of care and improve quality Benefits— Benefits are the health care services or items covered by a health insurance company for its enrollees, as defined by the insurance plan. Best practices— Best practices are the most up-to-date patient care interventions, which result in the best patient outcomes and minimize patient risk of death or complications.

Bundled payment— A bundled payments is a set, single payment for all health care services for an episode of care or a health condition, from care for a heart attack or knee replacement to a chronic condition such as diabetes. With bundled payments, health care providers are not paid for each service or procedure; they are instead rewarded for not only delivering the services but also for coordinating care and preventing duplicative or unneeded tests or treatments. Medical homes and accountable care organizations are designed to promote care coordination for patients.

Center for Health Care Strategies CHCS — The Center for Health Care Strategies CHCS is a nonprofit health policy resource center dedicated to improving the quality and cost effectiveness of health care services for low-income populations and people with chronic illnesses and disabilities. CHCS works directly with states and federal agencies, health plans, and providers to develop innovative programs that better serve people with complex and high-cost health care needs.

Center for Health Improvement CHI — The Center for Health Improvement CHI is a national, independent, nonprofit health policy and technical assistance organization dedicated to improving population health and encouraging healthy behaviors. Since its inception in , CHI has used evidence-based research to help public, private and nonprofit organizations strengthen their capacity to improve the quality and value of health care and enhance public health at the community level. HSC designs and conducts studies focused on the U.

Customer Reviews

In addition to this applied use, HSC studies contribute more broadly to the body of health care policy research that enables decision-makers to understand change and the national and local market forces driving that change. Ultimately, CMS is working to transform and modernize the health care system. Chronic care model— The chronic care model is a model developed by Edward Wagner and colleagues that provides a solid foundation from which health care teams can operate. The model has six dimensions: community resources and policies; health system organization of health care; patient self-management supports; delivery system redesign; decision support; and clinical information system.

The ultimate goal is to have activated patients interact in a productive way with well-prepared health care teams. Three components that are particularly critical to this goal are adequate decision support, which includes systems that encourage providers to use evidence-based protocols; delivery system redesign, such as using group visits and same-day appointments; and use of clinical information systems, such as disease registries, which allow providers to exchange information and follow patients over time.

Chronic disease— A chronic disease is a sickness that is long-lasting or recurrent. Examples include diabetes, asthma, heart disease, kidney disease and chronic lung disease. Clinical practice guidelines— Clinical practice guidelines are a set of systematically developed statements, usually based on scientific evidence, that help physicians and their patients make decisions about appropriate health care for specific medical conditions.

Clinical quality measures— Clinical quality measures are criteria to evaluate the care provided to a patient, based on the treatments and tests the patient received compared to care that is proven to be helpful to most patients with a certain condition. Comparative effectiveness research— Comparative effectiveness research compares multiple medications or treatments to determine which is most effective for different types of patients. Consumer— A consumer is an individual who uses, is affected by, or is entitled or compelled to use a health-related service.

These surveys cover topics that are important to consumers, such as the communication skills of providers and the accessibility of services. CAHPS originally stood for the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study, but as the products have evolved beyond health plans, the name has evolved as well to capture the full range of survey products and tools.

Consumer engagement— Consumer engagement is the situation in which consumers take an active role in their own health care, from understanding their own conditions and available treatments, to seeking out and making decisions based on information about the performance of health care providers.

CPDP's shared vision is that with this information, Americans will be better able to select hospitals, physicians and treatments based on nationally standardized measures for clinical quality, consumer experience, equity and efficiency. Consumer-driven or directed care— Consumer-driven or directed care is a form of health insurance that combines a high-deductible health plan with a tax-favored Health Savings Account, Flexible Spending Account or Health Reimbursement Account to cover out-of-pocket expenses.

These accounts are "consumer-driven" in that they give participants greater control over their own health care, allowing individuals to determine on a personal basis how they choose to spend their health care account funds. Coordination of care— Coordination of care comprises mechanisms that ensure patients and clinicians have access to, and take into consideration, all required information on a patient's conditions and treatments to ensure that the patient receives appropriate health care services.

Core measures— Core measures are specific clinical measures that, when viewed together, permit a robust assessment of the quality of care provided in a given focus area, such as acute myocardial infarction AMI.

Psychology for health care: key terms and concepts

Data collection— Data collection is the acquisition of health care information or facts based upon patient and consumer race, ethnicity and language. Data Collection provides health care providers with the ability to perform benchmarking measures on health care systems to determine areas where improvement is needed in providing care. Disease management— Disease management is an approach designed to improve the health and quality of life for people with chronic illnesses by working to keep the conditions under control and prevent them from getting worse.

Disease registry— A Disease registry is a large collection or registry belonging to a health care system that contains information on different chronic health problems affecting patients within the system. A disease registry helps to manage and log data on chronic illnesses and diseases. All data contained within the disease registry are logged by health care providers and are available to providers to perform benchmarking measures on health care systems.

Disparities in care — Disparities in care are differences in the delivery of health care, access to health care services and medical outcomes based on ethnicity, geography, gender and other factors that do not include socioeconomic status or insurance coverage. Understanding and eliminating the causes of health care disparities is an ongoing effort of many groups and organizations.

Effective care— Effective care includes health care services that are of proven value and have no significant tradeoffs. The benefits of the services so far outweigh the risks that all patients with specific medical needs should receive them. These services, such as beta-blockers for heart attack patients, are backed by well-articulated medical theory and strong evidence of efficacy, determined by clinical trials or valid cohort studies.

Emergency department— is the department within a health care facility that is intended to provide rapid treatment to victims of sudden injury or illness. Emergency Departments across the nation struggle with overcrowding, long patient wait periods and shortages of health care professionals. Episodes of care— An episode of care is a concept that focuses on a health condition from its inception through evaluation and treatment as a means of measuring both the quality of care received and the efficiency of the care provided.

Why Is Psychological Safety so Important in Health Care?

Evidence-based medicine— Evidence-based medicine is the use of the current, best available scientific research and practices with proven effectiveness in daily medical decision-making, including individual clinical practice decisions, by well-trained, experienced clinicians. Evidence is central to developing performance measures for the most common and costly health conditions. The measures allow consumers to compare medical providers and learn which ones routinely offer the highest quality, safest and most effective care. Federally qualified health center FQHC — A federally qualified health center is a health organization that offers primary care and preventative health services to all patients regardless of their ability to pay for care.

A FQHC must be a public or private nonprofit organization and meet specific criteria to receive government funding.


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Fee schedule— A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by health plans to pay doctors or other providers. Fee-for-service— Fee-for-service is an arrangement under which patients or a third party pay physicians, hospitals, or other health care providers for each encounter or service rendered. Group health plan— A group health plan is a health plan that provides health care coverage to employees, former employees and their families, and is supported by an employer or employee organization.


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  • Healthcare acquired infection Hospital acquired infection — Healthcare acquired infections are illnesses that patients get while receiving medical or surgical treatment. These infections can be caused by medical equipment, such as catheters and ventilators, complications from surgery, overuse of antibiotics, or a sickness caught from a health care provider. Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary federal agency for improving access to health care services for people who are uninsured, isolated or medically vulnerable.

    Research Methods Key Term Glossary | Psychology | tutor2u

    Health information technology HIT — Health information technology is a global term which encompasses electronic health records and personal health records to indicate the use of computers, software programs, electronic devices and the Internet to store, retrieve, update and transmit information about patients' health. While many hospitals collect information on patient satisfaction, there is no national standard for collecting or publicly reporting this information that would enable valid comparisons to be made across all hospitals. H-CAHPS is a core set of questions that can be combined with customized, hospital-specific items to produce information that complements the data hospitals currently collect to support improvements in internal customer service and quality-related activities.

    Hospital Quality Alliance HQA — The Hospital Quality Alliance HQA is a public-private collaboration seeking to improve the quality of care provided by the nation's hospitals by measuring and publicly reporting on that care.

    Survey Disclaimer

    Hospital discharge— Hospital discharge is the process by which a patient is released from the hospital by health care professionals. Hospital readmissions— Hospital readmissions of concern occur when a patient is released from the hospital and then must return within a short period of time to receive additional care for the same or a closely related health condition. Readmissions are often measured to determine the quality of care provided by a hospital and its affiliated physicians, because it indicates that a patient did not receive proper treatment or that care following the hospitalization was not properly coordinated.

    These regions are defined by where patients in surrounding areas are most often referred to for tertiary care.


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